||"dawnbreak in the west"|
Sunday, May 01, 2011
Update #27: king of the devils
I have updated Reformer and Iconoclast, to make way for sura 38. I'm asserting that both suras 21 and 40 used sura 38 (and used 34, too); the connections are clearest in sura 21.
Alongside this, the "Return of the Shah" got an update too. Previously I hadn't done enough research on the Jam Shid / Azdahak / Feraydun saga. Last night I ran across the Den Kard, and a seventh-century Armenian history, and al-Sha'bi as Tabari cites him. We now have the anti-Muslim intrusions to this saga limited to the decade 100s / 720s, leading into Khusru's rebellion. I think this edition relies upon sura 38 too; specifically, the Iranians read that Solomon claimed rulership over devils and what anti-Muslim writer could resist that fat target?
About sura 38, here's Solomon's Revenge. This sura uses suras 14, 26, 34 and 46; of which sura 46 is the most helpful since it uses sura 41 and since I have a date, or at least a decade, for sura 41.
Given that, we can constrain sura 38 even further. I date it to the first years of al-Walid and I blame Yazid b. Muhallab for it. As byproduct, that constrains suras 26, 34, and 46 all prior to 711 AD.
I said in the last real update (3 April) that the "Return of the Shah" project wasn't going to be "much" helpful. So far, I have proven myself... right. The anti-Islamic "updates" to the Feraydun legend do form an external witness for sura 38 in the 100s / 720s. But even before last night's research, I knew that I'd had suras 21 and (sorta) 40 - both of which I've dated already, with better dates than I could get for Khusru's shpiel. Sura 38's main evidence is internal anyway. Still, it is nice to have something outside the Qur'an and hadith, this early.
Lastly, I have updated last year's Godfather's Qur'an post. Sura 38 fits right in there. It may explain why al-Hajjaj arrested Yazid b. Muhallab, and why Yazid fled to Sulayman of all people. Yes, there's an excuse in "Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary, Volume 4" (google-books; page 164). But I'm not inclined to believe it.
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